Under laboratory conditions and with current state-of-the-art technology, it is possible to produce single crystal silicon solar cells close to 25% efficient. However, commercially mass produced cells are typically only 13-14% efficient. The overriding reason for this difference in efficiency is that the research techniques used in the laboratory are not suitable for commercial production within the photovoltaic industry and therefore lower cost techniques, which result in lower efficiency, are used.
Solar cell research continues to improve the efficiency of solar cells, with targets aimed towards the currently accepted limit of 25-30%. Efficiency results for commercially produced solar cells lag some years behind efficiency results for laboratory produced cells. However, it is estimated module efficiencies over 20% could be produced commercially. For a given module cost, more efficient modules are also more cost effective because fewer additional costs (such as lade area, wiring costs, etc.) are needed to generate the same amount of power. Ultimately, this means that the more efficient a PV module is, and thus the more cost effective it becomes, the more attractive photovoltaics will be as an electricity source for both domestic and industrial use. The impact of module efficiency on electricity cost is shown in the figure below.
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